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Application Notes

Yttrium • Transition Metal

Primary XPS region: Y3d
Overlapping regions: Si2s
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Y3d5/2 / eV
Y metal 156
Y2O3 156.4
Y carbonate 157.7

Experimental Information


Interpretation of XPS spectra

General comments

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Y
Date of Discovery: 1794
Name Origin: Ytterby, Sweden
Appearance: silvery
Discoverer: Johann Gadolin
Obtained From: monazite, bastnasite

Melting Point: 1799 K
Boiling Point: 3609 K
Density[kg/m3]: 4472
Molar Volume: 19.88 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 39
Neutrons: 50
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,9,2
Electron Configuration: [Kr]4d15s2
Oxidation State: 3
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal

Although it is never found unbound in nature, yttrium is commonly found in rare-earth metals. Yttrium is chemically similar to lanthanides and relatively stable in air. Yttrium compounds give color television its red color. Ytterby, a Swedish village, is located near a quarry that contained minerals comprised of rare earth elements and other elements. This village gave way to the name of this and three other elements. Samples of lunar rocks from the Apollo program yielded a relatively high content of yttrium. Yttrium has no known biological role and is not normally found in human tissue.

Application Notes

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