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Vanadium • Transition Metal

Primary XPS region: V2p
Overlapping regions: O1s
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy V2p3/2 / eV
V metal 512.3
V (II) 513.6
V (IV) 516.4
V2O3 517.1

V (II) and V (IV) referenced to V2p metal peak. V2O5 referenced to adventitious C1s peak at 284.8eV.

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS spectra



[1] MC Biesinger et al., Applied Surface Science 257 (2010) 887-898.

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: V
Date of Discovery: 1830
Name Origin: Scandinavian vanadis
Appearance: silverish
Discoverer: Nils Sefström
Obtained From: patronite, vanadinite

Melting Point: 2163 K
Boiling Point: 3653 K
Density[kg/m3]: 6110
Molar Volume: 8.32 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 23
Neutrons: 28
Shell Structure: 2,8,11,2
Electron Configuration: [Ar]3d34s2
Oxidation State: 5,3
Crystal Structure: body centered cubic

In 1830, N. Sefström discovered vanadium in some iron ores. Vanadium is a white metal that possesses good resistance to corrosion by alkalis, and sulphuric and hydrochloric acid. Vanadium occurs in approximately sixty-five different minerals and in carbon deposits such as crude oil, coal, oil shale and tar sands, but is never found unbound in nature. Because vanadium has substantial component strength, low fission neutron cross section, and oxidizes freely at about 933 K, it is a useful component in nuclear applications. Vanadium’s main application is used as ferrovanadium or as a steel supplement. Vanadium is also manufactured in steel alloys such as stainless steel instruments and tools, electrical fuel cells and storage batteries, and is mixed with aluminum in titanium alloys for aircrafts.


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