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Application Notes

Titanium • Transition Metal

Primary XPS region: Ti2p
Overlapping regions: Ru3p3/2, In3d3/2
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Tip3/2 / eV
Ti metal 454.1
TiN 454.9
TiO2 458.5
SrTiO3 458.4

Experimental Information


Interpretation of XPS spectra

General comments

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Ti
Date of Discovery: 1791
Name Origin: Greek Titans
Appearance: silverish
Discoverer: William Gregor
Obtained From: ilmenite, rutile

Melting Point: 1941 K
Boiling Point: 3560 K
Density[kg/m3]: 4507
Molar Volume: 10.64 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 22
Neutrons: 26
Shell Structure: 2,8,10,2
Electron Configuration: [Ar]3d24s2
Oxidation State: 4
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal

Titanium has a very high strength-to-weight ratio and is corrosion-resistant. Most titanium is used in the form of titanium dioxide (TiO2). Its silvery metallic color makes it very useful in paints, paper and plastics. Paint made with TiO2 reflects infrared radiation, making it useful in sunscreen and to astronomers. Because titanium is physiologically inert, it is used in joint replacement implants and is popular in body piercing. Titanium is not found unbound in nature and it occurs mainly in minerals. Rocks brought back from the moon contained about 12% TiO2.

Application Notes

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