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Application Notes

Sulfur • Non-Metals

Primary XPS region: S2p
Overlapping regions: Si2s plasmon, Se3p
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy S2p3/2 / eV
Metal sulfide ~161.5
Thiol bound to gold, Au-S 162.5
Thiol, R-SH ~164
Na2(SO3)2 166.5
Metal sulfate ~169

Charge referenced to adventitious C1s peak at 284.8eV

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS Spectra

General comments

hexAbout This Element

Symbol: S
Date of Discovery: ancient
Name Origin: Sanskrit sulvari, Arabic sufra
Appearance: lemon yellow
Discoverer: unknown
Obtained From: pure form or as sulfide/sulfate minerals

Melting Point: 115.21 K
Boiling Point: 444.6 K
Density[kg/m3]: (alpha)2.07
Molar Volume: 15.53 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 16
Neutrons: 16
Shell Structure: 2,8,6
Electron Configuration: [Ne]3s23p4
Oxidation State: -1,±2,4,6
Crystal Structure: Orthorhombic

As a minor component of fats, body fluids, and skeletal materials, this pale yellow element is essential to human life. Sulfur is found in meteorites, volcanoes, and hot springs. Even one of Jupiter’s moons owes it’s colors to various forms of sulfur. An important manufactured chemical, sulfuric acid, is produced using sulfur. Sulfuric acid is commonly known as battery acid. In high concentrations, hydrogen sulfide can cause death by means of respiratory paralysis, and sulfur dioxide is known to be one of the causes of acid rain and a dangerous component in air pollution.

Application Notes

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