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Application Notes

Silicon • Metalloid

Primary XPS region: Si2p
Overlapping regions: Al2p plasmon, La4d
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Si2p / eV
Si element 99.4
Si3N4 101.7
ZrSiO4 102
Organic Si ~102
Aluminusilicate 102.7
SiO2 103.5

Silicates and nitride referenced to C1s at 284.8eV

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS Spectra

General comments

hexAbout This Element

Symbol: Si
Date of Discovery: 1787
Name Origin: Latin silex
Appearance: dark gray, bluish tinge
Discoverer: Antoine Lavoisier
Obtained From: silicon dioxide or silicate

Melting Point: 1414 K
Boiling Point: 2900 K Density[kg/m3]: 2.33
Molar Volume: 12.06 × 10-6 m3/mol Protons/Electrons: 14
Neutrons: 14
Shell Structure: 2,8,4
Electron Configuration: [Ne]3s23p2
Oxidation State: 4
Crystal Structure: Cubic

Present in the sun and stars, silicon is the second most abundant element, making up over a quarter of the earth’s crust. Silicon is important in both animal and plant life. However, it can cause the serious lung disease silicosis if siliceous dust is inhaled. This dust, the most common form of silicon, is silvery gray with a bluish tinge. As an important ingredient in several materials such as glass, aluminum, and steel, silicon can be used to make bricks or concrete, computer chips, and silicone implants used in a variety of medical applications.

Application Notes

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