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Samarium • Lanthanide Rare Earth

Primary XPS region: Sm3d
Overlapping regions: N/A
Binding energies of common chemical states: N/A

Experimental Information


Interpretation of XPS spectra


General comments

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Sm
Date of Discovery: 1879
Appearance: silver
Discoverer: Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Obtained From: kernite

Name Origin: Smarskite
Melting Point: 1345 K
Boiling Point: 2173 K
Density[kg/m3]: 7353
Molar Volume: 19.98 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 62
Neutrons: 88
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,24,8,2
Electron Configuration: [Xe]6s24f6
Oxidation State: 3
Crystal Structure: rhombohedral

In 1853, a Swiss chemist by the name of J. C. Galissard de Marignac, spectroscopically discovered samarium in the material dydimia. Very similar to praseodymium, samarium is one of the rare elements used to make carbon arc lights for use in the motion picture industry. Comprising about 1% of Misch metal, the element is also used to make flints for lighters. When combined with cobalt, the elements produce a powerful permanent magnet with a high resistance to demagnetization. Samarium oxide is also added to glass to sensitize the phosphors in infrared radiation and acts as a catalyst for the dehydration and dehydrogenation of ethanol. While samarium has no known biological role, it is purported to stimulate metabolism.


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