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Rhodium • Transition Metal

Primary XPS region: Rh3d
Overlapping regions: Mg KLL
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Rh3d5/2/eV
Rh metal 307.6
Native oxide 308.8

Experimental Information


Interpretation of XPS spectra

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Rh
Date of Discovery: 1803
Name Origin: Greek rhodon
Appearance: silver-white
Discoverer: William Wollaston
Obtained From: platinum ores

Melting Point: 2237 K
Boiling Point: 3968 K
Density[kg/m3]: 12450
Molar Volume: 8.28 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 45
Neutrons: 58
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,16,1
Electron Configuration: [Kr]4d85s1
Oxidation State: 2,3,4
Crystal Structure: cubic

This silvery-white hard transition metal belongs to the platinum group. It has high reflectance and is hard and durable. Rhodium is primarily used as an alloying agent with platinum and iridium to improve high temperature strength and oxidatlion resistance. These metal alloys are employed in furnace windings, electrical contacts, and high temperature resistance wires. As the pure metal, rhodium’s brilliance and resistance to tarnish makes it well suited for plating jewelry. This metal was discovered in 1803 by W. Wollaston and is named from the Greek origin “rhono,” meaning rose, after the rosy-colored solution yielded by its salts.


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