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Palladium • Transition Metal

Primary XPS region: Pd3d
Overlapping regions: Ca2p, Au4d5/2
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Pd3d5/2/eV
Pd metal 335.0
Native oxide 336.7

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS spectra

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Pd
Date of Discovery: 1803
Name Origin: Greek pallas
Appearance: white
Discoverer: William Wollaston
Obtained From: platinum, nickel, copper, mercury ores

Melting Point: 1825 K
Boiling Point: 3200 K
Density[kg/m3]: 12023
Molar Volume: 8.56 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 46
Neutrons: 60
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,18,0
Electron Configuration: [Kr]4d10
Oxidation State: ±1
Crystal Structure: cubic face centered

Primarily used as an industrial catalyst and in jewelry, palladium is a rare silver-white transition metal similar to platinum. Some notable features of palla- dium include its tarnish resistance, low density and melting point, and its chemical attraction to sulfuric and nitric acid. When dissolved in hydrochloric acid, palladium absorbs up to 900 times its own volume of hydrogen at room temperature. In 1803, palladium was first discovered in crude platinum ore from South America by W. H. Wollaston. Palladium was named after the asteroid Pallas, which was discovered two years prior to the element’s discovery. Palladium is commercially produced from nickel-copper deposits. The element can be found as a free metal and alloyed within platinum and gold in deposits located in Ethiopia, South and North America and the Ural Mountains.


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