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Neodymium • Lanthanide Rare Earth

Primary XPS region: Nd3d, Nd4d
Overlapping regions: O KLL
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Nd3d5/2/eV
Nd aluminium phosphate ~980

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS spectra

General comments

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Nd
Date of Discovery: 1885
Name Origin: Greek neos and didymos
Appearance: silver
Discoverer: C.F. Aver von Welsbach
Obtained From: monazite and bastnasite

Melting Point: 1297 K
Boiling Point: 3373 K
Density[kg/m3]: 6800
Molar Volume: 20.59 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 60
Neutrons: 84
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,22,8,2
Electron Configuration: [Xe]4f46s2
Oxidation State: 3
Crystal Structure: hexagonal

Neodymium is a rare reactive earth metal with a bright, silvery metallic luster that quickly tarnishes in air. It was discovered in 1885 by Austrian chemist Baron Carl Auer von Welbach, who separated the metal from didymium with repeated fractionations. While the free element is in misch metal, long known and used as a pyrophoric alloy for light flints, the element was not isolated in pure form until 1925. Neodymium is used to create strong permanent magnets used in loudspeaker and computer data storage devices. It is also used to color glass used in lasers and incandescent light bulbs.


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