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Application Notes

Manganese • Transition Metal

Primary XPS region: Mn2p
Overlapping regions: Cu LMM, Au4p1/2
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Mn2p3/2 / eV
Mn metal 638.7
MnO 641.4
Mn2O3 641.4
MnO2 641.8

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS spectra

XPS spectrum for manganese

XPS spectrum of Mn oxides

XPS spectrum of Mn oxides


crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Mn
Date of Discovery: 1774
Name Origin: Latin magnes
Appearance: silverish/grayish
Discoverer: Johann Gahn
Obtained From: brine, sea water

Melting Point: 1519 K
Boiling Point: 2334 K
Density[kg/m3]: 7470
Molar Volume: 7.35 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 25
Neutrons: 30
Shell Structure: 2,8,13,2
Electron Configuration: [Ar]3d54s2
Oxidation State: 7,6,4,2,3
Crystal Structure: Cubic Body Centered

Manganese is used in the same disciplines today as it was in prehistoric times. Used in iron and steel production, it was found in iron ores forged by the Spartans. The Egyptians and Romans used manganese compounds to add or remove color from glass. Manganese compounds can color glass an amethyst color and produce the color of the gemstone amethyst. Most of the world’s deposits of manganese are found in South Africa and Ukraine. Manganese also exists in nodules on the ocean floor, however no economical method of harvesting them has been found. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) is commonly used in laboratories for its oxidizing properties.

Application Notes

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