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Lutetium • Lanthanide Rare Earth

Primary XPS region: Lu4d
Overlapping regions: N/A
Binding energies of common chemical states: N/A

Experimental Information


Interpretation of XPS spectra


hexAbout This Element

Symbol: Lu
Date of Discovery: 1907
Name Origin: From Lutetia
Appearance: silvery
Discoverer: Georges Urbain Obtained From: gadolinite, xenotime

Melting Point: 1656 K
Boiling Point: 3402 K Density[kg/m3]: 9.85
Molar Volume: 17.78 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 71
Neutrons: 104
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,32,9,2
Electron Configuration: [Xe]4f145d16s2
Oxidation State: 3
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal

Found with almost all other rare earth-metals but never by itself, lutetium is extremely difficult to isolate. Consequently, it is one of the most expensive metals-costing about six times as much per gram as gold. Not surprisingly lutetium has no large scale practical uses. Stable lutetium nuclides can be used as catalysts in cracking, alkylation, hydrogenation and poly- merization processes. It is used as catalyst in petroleum cracking in refineries. Lutetium aluminum garnet has been proposed for use as a lens material in high refractive index immersion lithography.


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