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Application Notes

Lithium • Alkali Metal

Primary XPS region: Li1s
Overlapping regions: Au5p3/2, Fe3p1/2
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Li1s / eV
Li2TiO3 54.7
Li2CO3 55.4
Li2B4O7 55.9
LiF 56.1
LiCl 56.3

Charge referenced to adventitious C1s peak at 284.8eV

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS Spectra

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Li
Date of Discovery: 1817
Name Origin: Greek lithos
Appearance: silvery
Discoverer: Johann Arfvedson
Obtained From: kernite

Melting Point: 453.69 K
Boiling Point: 1620.15 K
Density[kg/m3]: 535
Molar Volume: 13.02 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 3
Neutrons: 4
Shell Structure: 2,1
Electron Configuration: [He]2s1
Oxidation State: 1
Crystal Structure: body centered cubic

Johann Arfvedson discovered lithium in 1817 in a petalite ore found in Sweden. However, the highly reactive nature of lithium prevented its isolation until W.T. Brande and H. Davy used electrolysis on lithium oxide. Lithium is not found freely in nature because of its reactive nature. It is the lightest metal with a density about half that of water. Lithium is characterized by a bright red color when heated. The high electro-chemical potential of lithium makes it an important material in storage batteries. Some lithium alloys are used to make high performance aircraft parts, and a number of lithium salts are used as mood stabilizers in the treatment of bipolar disorder and depression.

Application Notes

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