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Application Notes

Iron • Transition Metal

Primary XPS region: Fe2p
Overlapping regions: Cu LMM, Ni LMM
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Fe2p3/2 / eV
Fe metal 706.7
FeO 709.6
Fe2O3 710.8
FeCl2 710.4

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS spectra

XPS spectrum of iron metal

XPS spectrum iron(III) oxide

XPS spectrum of air-exposed marcasite


hexAbout This Element

Symbol: Fe
Date of Discovery: ancient
Name Origin: Latin
Appearance: silvery
Discoverer: unknown
Obtained From: iron ores

Melting Point: 1535 K
Boiling Point: 2861 K
Density[kg/m3]: 7.86
Molar Volume: 7.09 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 26
Neutrons: 30
Shell Structure: 2,8,14,2
Electron Configuration: [Ar]3d64s2
Oxidation State: 2,3,4,6
Crystal Structure: Cubic

Comprising 35% of the Earth’s mass, iron is the main component of steel and the most used of all the metals. Iron can take on many forms, including cast, wrought, and pig iron, but suffers badly from rust if not protected in some way. Iron is a necessary trace element used by all known living organisms. In mammals and other animals, hemoglobin is the iron-containing metalloprotein that carries oxygen in red blood cells. Good sources of dietary iron include meat, beans, and leafy vegetables; however, excessive amounts of iron in the body can lead to cell damage and eventually long-term organ damage or even death.

Application Notes

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