Return to Elements Table


Application Notes

Indium • Other Metal

Primary XPS region: In3d
Overlapping regions: N/A
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy In3d5/2/eV
In metal 443.8
In2O3 444.0

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS spectra

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: In
Date of Discovery: 1863
Name Origin: indigo spectrum
Appearance: silverish
Discoverer: Ferdinand Reich
Obtained From: zinc refining

Melting Point: 430 K
Boiling Point: 2345 K
Density[kg/m3]: 7310
Molar Volume: 15.76 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 49
Neutrons: 66
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,18,3
Electron Configuration: [Kr]4d105s25p1
Oxidation State: 3
Crystal Structure: tetragonal

Most elements were discovered while scientists searched for other materials, and indium is no exception. This very soft, silvery-white metal has a bright luster and emits a high-pitched “cry” when bent. One of the first major applications for indium was as a coating for bearings on high-performance aircraft during World War II. Later, tin-doped indium oxide, transparent and colorless in thin films, became a main component in liquid crystal, flat panel and plasma displays. Not surprisingly the demand for indium has risen dramatically, and lower cost alternatives such as carbon nanotubes and conducting polymers are being studied.

Application Notes

Return to Elements Table