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Holmium • Lanthanide Rare Earth

Primary XPS region: Ho4d
Overlapping regions: N/A
Binding energies of common chemical states: N/A

Experimental Information


Interpretation of XPS spectra


hexAbout This Element

Symbol: Ho
Date of Discovery: 1878
Name Origin: Latin Holmia
Appearance: silver
Discoverer: J.L. Soret
Obtained From: gadolinite

Melting Point: 1470 K
Boiling Point: 2720 K Density[kg/m3]: 8.795
Molar Volume: 18.74 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 67
Neutrons: 98
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,29,8,2
Electron Configuration: [Xe]4f116s2
Oxidation State: 3
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal

Holmium is stable in dry air at room temperature but is rapidly oxidized in moist air or when heated. Holmium has the highest magnetic moment of any naturally occurring element and possesses other unusual magnetic properties. Holmium has been used to create the strongest artificially-generated magnetic fields and is also used in nuclear control rods. Solid state holmium lasers are found in a variety of medical and dental settings. One such application is used to break up kidney stones while being minimally invasive.


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