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Application Notes

Hafnium • Transition Metal

Primary XPS region: Hf4f
Overlapping regions: O2s
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Hf4f7/2
Hf metal 14.3 eV
HfO2 18.3 eV

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS spectra

General comments

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Hf
Date of Discovery: 1923
Name Origin: Latin Hafnia
Appearance: silver
Discoverer: Dirk Coster, George von Hevesy
Obtained From: zircon

Melting Point: 2423 K
Boiling Point: 5673 K
Density[kg/m3]: 13310
Molar Volume: 13.44 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 72
Neutrons: 106
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,32,10,2
Electron Configuration: [Xe]4f145d26s2
Oxidation State: 4
Crystal Structure: hexagonal

While using X-ray spectroscopy to study the arrangements of the outer electrons within atoms in samples of zirconium ore, D. Coster and G. von Hevesy discovered the element hafnium and were also able to predict the electron structure of the element. Hafnium, a lustrous, silverish gray tetravalent transition metal, has many characteristics similar to that of zirconium. Half of all hafnium metal produced is through a by-product of zirconium refinement. While found in natural zirconium compounds, hafnium does not exist as a free element in nature. Because hafnium is a good absorber of neutrons, has superb mechanical and corrosion resistance properties, it is used to make nuclear control rods, such as those used in nuclear submarines.

Application Notes

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