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Germanium • Metalloid

Primary XPS region: Ge2p, Ge3d
Overlapping regions: W4f, F2s
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Ge2p3/2 / eV Binding energy Ge3d5/2 / eV
Ge elemental 1217.3 29.3
GeO 1218.0 30.9
GeO2 1220.2 32.5

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS spectra

General comments

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Ge
Date of Discovery: 1886
Name Origin: Latin Germania
Appearance: grayish
Discoverer: Clemens Winkler
Obtained From: copper, zinc, lead

Neutrons: 41
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,4
Electron Configuration: [Ar]3d104s24p2
Melting Point: 1211.4 K
Boiling Point: 3093 K
Density[kg/m3]: 5323
Molar Volume: 13.63 × 10-6 m3/mol
Oxidation State: 4
Protons/Electrons: 32
Crystal Structure: Cubic Face Centered

Chemically similar to tin, germanium is an important semiconductor material. Due to its small band gap, germanium is highly sensitive to infrared light and is used as a detector material in infrared and Raman spectrometers. Germanium’s refraction and dispersion properties make it useful in wide-angle camera lenses and in microscope objective lenses. Silicon germanide (SiGe) is becoming an important material in high speed integrated circuits. Germanium transistors are used in modern electric guitars to simulate the sound of Rock and Roll era amplifiers.


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