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Application Notes

Gallium • Other Metal

Primary XPS region: Ga2p, Ga3d
Overlapping regions: In4d, O2s
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Ga2p3/2 / eV Binding energy Ga3d5/2 / eV
Ga elemental 1116.7 18.7
GaAs 1116.9 19.1
Ga2O3 1118.0 20.5
GaAs native oxide 1117.8 20.3
Ga native oxide 1118.7 20.9

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS spectra

General comments

hexAbout This Element

Symbol: Ga
Date of Discovery: 1875
Name Origin: Latin Gallia
Appearance: white/silver
Discoverer: Paul Emile Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Obtained From: bauxite, germanite, coal

Melting Point: 29.87 K
Boiling Point: 2204 K
Density[kg/m3]: 5.907
Molar Volume: 11.80 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 31
Neutrons: 39
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,3
Electron Configuration: [Ar]3d104s24p1
Oxidation State: 3,1
Crystal Structure: Orthorhombic

Very pure gallium metal has a brilliant silvery color. In its solid state, this metal fractures like glass. Due to its very low melting point, it is possible to melt gallium in one’s hand, although this is not recommended. When storing this element, special considerations must be taken into account. The metal expands when it solidifies, making glass storage difficult. It also attacks most other metals by diffusing into their metal lattice making storage in steel or aluminum containers impossible. Since gallium wets glass and porcelain, it can be used to create brilliant mirrors. Gallium nitrate has even been used in the treatment of arthritis.

Application Notes

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