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Application Notes

Fluorine • Halogen

Primary XPS region: F1s
Overlapping regions: Cu LMM
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy F1s / eV
Metal fluorides 684-685.5
Organic fluorine 688-689

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS Spectra

General comments

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: F
Date of Discovery: 1886
Name Origin: Latin fluo
Appearance: greenish
Discoverer: Joseph Henri Moissan
Obtained From: mineral fluorite

Melting Point: 53.53 K
Boiling Point: 85.01 K
Density[kg/m3]: 1.696
Molar Volume: 11.20 x10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 9
Neutrons: 10
Shell Structure: 2,7
Electron Configuration: [He]2s22p5
Oxidation State: -1
Crystal Structure: cubic

G. Agricola first described fluorine in the form of fluorspar (calcium fluoride) in 1529, but because of its highly reactive nature it took until 1886 for fluorine to be isolated by H. Moissan. This feat earned Moissan the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1906. Commercial production of fluorine was not needed until the Manhattan Project, in which uranium hexafluoride was used to separate the isotopes U-235 and U-238. Today, fluorine is found in such materials as Teflon and Freon. Fluorine is the most reactive and electronegative of all elements, and in the presence of water, will form hydrofluoric acid, an extremely dangerous compound.

Application Notes

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