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Europium • Lanthanide Rare Earth

Primary XPS region: Eu3d, Eu4d
Overlapping regions:
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Eu3d5/2/eV
Eu metal ~1126
Eu (III) oxide 1135

Oxide charge referenced to adventitious C1s peak at 284.8eV

Experimental Information


Interpretation of XPS spectra


crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Eu
Date of Discovery: 1901
Name Origin: Europe
Appearance: silver
Discoverer: Eugene Demarcay
Obtained From: man-made

Melting Point: 1095 K
Boiling Point: 1870 K
Density[kg/m3]: 5244
Molar Volume: 28.97 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 63
Neutrons: 89
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,25,8,2
Electron Configuration: [Xe]6s24f7
Oxidation State: 3
Crystal Structure: cubic body centered

Suspecting the element samarium was contami- nated with an unknown element, E. Antole, a French chemist, discovered europium in 1896. Europium is known for being the most reactive of the rare earth elements. The element is about as hard as lead and quite ductile. Europium has been used to dope plastics to make lasers, but there are no widely used commercial applications for the element. Due to its ability to absorb neutrons, europium oxide is widely used as a red phosphor in television sets and as an activator for yttrium-based phosphors. The element is also used as an agent to manufacture fluorescent glass.


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