Return to Elements Table


Application Notes

Cobalt • Transition Metal

Primary XPS region: Co2p
Overlapping regions: Co LMM, Ba3d
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Co2p3/2
Co metal 778.2 eV
Co3O4 779.7 eV
CoO 779.7 eV

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS spectra

XPS spectrum of cobalt metal\

XPS spectrum of cobalt oxides

General comments

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Co
Date of Discovery: 1737
Name Origin: German kobalt or kobold
Appearance: silver
Discoverer: George Brandt
Obtained From: arsenic, oxygen, sulfur, cobatine

Melting Point: 1768 K
Boiling Point: 3143 K
Density[kg/m3]: 8900
Molar Volume: 6.67 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 27
Neutrons: 32
Shell Structure: 2,8,15,2
Electron Configuration: [Ar]3d74s2
Oxidation State: 2,3
Crystal Structure: hexagonal

Frequently, cobalt is associated with nickel because both elements have characteristic ingredients of meteoric iron. This solid ferro- magnetic silver-white element was known in ancient times for its compounds, but its discovery was credited to G. Brandt between 1730 and 1737 when he was able to show that cobalt colors glass a rich blue. In small amounts, cobalt is an essential element for humans and many other living organisms, and it is also a central component of vitamin B-12 or cobalamin. Cobalt should be handled with care because of its toxicity and its risk factor in nuclear confrontation. Exposure to cobalt-60, a powerful gamma ray emitter, may cause cancer.

Application Notes

Return to Elements Table