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Carbon

Application Notes

Carbon • Non-Metals

Primary XPS region: C1s
Overlapping regions: Ru3d, Sr3p1/2, K2p
Contents of carbon section

Adventitious Carbon Contamination

Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy C1s / eV
C-C 284.8
C-O-C ~286
O-C=O ~288.5

Charge referenced to adventitious C1s, C-C peak at 284.8eV

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS Spectra

Adventitious carbon contamination is commonly used as a charge reference for XPS spectra.

A few nanometers of adventitious carbon on a sample can dramatically affect the survey spectrum of that sample.

Polymers

Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy C1s / eV
C-C 284.8
C-O ~286
C=O ~289
CF2 ~292
CF3 ~294

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS Spectra

General Comments

None

Graphite, Graphene, Diamond

Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy C1s / eV
sp2 carbon ~284
sp3 carbon 284.8

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS Spectra

General Comments

None

Inorganic Carbon (e.g., Carbonates and Carbides)

Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy C1s / eV
Metal carbide ~283
Metal carbonate 288–290

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS Spectra

References

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: C
Date of Discovery: Ancient times
Name Origin: Latin carbo
Appearance: may be black
Discoverer: unknown
Obtained From: burning with insufficient oxygen

Melting Point: 3773.15 K
Boiling Point: 5100.15 K
Density[kg/m3]: 2267
Molar Volume: 5.29 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 6
Neutrons: 6
Shell Structure: 2,4
Electron Configuration: [He]2s22p2
Oxidation State: 4,2
Crystal Structure: hexagonal

Carbon has been known since ancient times when it was produced by burning organic material in the presence of insufficient oxygen. Four allotropes of carbon are known: amorphous (e.g., charcoal and soot), graphite, diamond and fullerenes. Carbon’s small size allows it to form multiple bonds with many other small atoms, including carbon atoms, and is prevalent in a large number of chemical compounds. Carbon-based compounds are the basis for all living systems and comprise the structure of fossil fuels in the form of hydrocarbons. Several carbon isotopes are important. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry designated the isotope C-12 as the basis for atomic weights, while the unstable isotope C-14, with a half-life of 5700 years, is used for carbon dating.


Application Notes


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