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Cadmium • Transition Metal

Primary XPS region: Cd3d
Overlapping regions:N1s, Hf4p1/2, Sc2p
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Cd3d5/2
Cd metal 405.1 eV
CdS 405.1 eV

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS spectra


hexAbout This Element

Symbol: Cd
Date of Discovery: 1817
Name Origin: Greek kadmeia
Appearance: silvery
Discoverer: Fredrich Stromeyer
Obtained From: by-product, zinc refining

Melting Point: 320.9 K
Boiling Point: 765 K
Density[kg/m3]: 8.65
Molar Volume: 13.00 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 48
Neutrons: 64
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,18,2
Electron Configuration: [Kr]4d105s2
Oxidation State: 2
Crystal Structure: Hexagonal

This very soft metal is often found as an impurity in zinc. After being discovered in Germany in 1817, cadmium was produced mainly in that country for the next 100 years. Although highly toxic, cadmium and its compounds were used as a medicine to treat several illnesses in the early 1900’s. Today, cadmium is recognized as a cause of several types of cancer. Cadmium poisoning is called itai-itai disease in Japan (literally “ouch ouch” disease) due to the severe pain it causes. Cadmium is used in batteries, pigments, coatings and plating, and is used as a stabilizer for plastics.


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