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Application Notes

Aluminum • Other Metal

Primary XPS region: Al2p
Overlapping regions: Pt4f, Cu3p
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energy Al2p / eV
Al metal 72.6
Aluminosilicate 74.4
Al oxide 74.6
Al oxide on Al foil 75.6

Oxide/foil referenced to Al2p metal peak.

Silicate and alumina referenced to adventitious C1s peak at 284.8eV

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS Spectra

General comments

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Al
Date of Discovery: 1825
Name Origin: Latin alumen
Appearance: silver
Discoverer: Hans Christian Ørsted
Obtained From: bauxite

Melting Point: 933.52 K
Boiling Point: 2740.15 K
Density[kg/m3]: 2700
Molar Volume: 10.00 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 13
Neutrons: 14
Shell Structure: 2,8,3
Electron Configuration: [Ne]3s23p1
Oxidation State: 3
Crystal Structure: cubic face centered

While ancient civilizations used aluminum salts for dyeing mordants and astringents, it wasn’t until 1825 that H. Ørsted isolated aluminum. The biggest breakthrough came in 1886, when C. Hall developed an inexpensive electrolytic process for extracting aluminum from the ore bauxite. This process is still commonly used today. Aluminium is valued for its light weight, strength, durability and resistance to oxidation, and has propelled the use of aluminum alloys for aircraft and rockets. Evidence exists that high levels of aluminum may be toxic, although aluminium is generally considered less toxic than most heavy metals. Although the durability of aluminum is well known, certain chemicals such as mercury can cause corrosion in aluminum. This is the reason why mercury thermometers are not allowed on aircraft.

Application Notes

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