Zinc • Transition Metal

Primary XPS region: Zn2p
Overlapping regions:O KLL, V LMM
Binding energies of common chemical states:

Chemical state Binding energZn2p3/2/eV
Zn metal 1021.7
ZnO ~1022

Oxide charge referenced to adventitious C1s peak at 284.8eV.

Experimental Information

Interpretation of XPS spectra

General comments

crystal structureAbout This Element

Symbol: Zn
Date of Discovery: 1746
Name Origin: German zink
Appearance: blue-white
Discoverer: Andreas Marggraf
Obtained From: zinc blende, calamine

Melting Point: 692 K
Boiling Point: 1180 K
Density[kg/m3]: 7140
Molar Volume: 9.16 × 10-6 m3/mol
Protons/Electrons: 30
Neutrons: 35
Shell Structure: 2,8,18,2
Electron Configuration: [Ar]3d104s2
Oxidation State: 2,3
Crystal Structure: hexagonal

Zinc alloys have been used for centuries, although A. Marggraf is credited for the first isolation of zinc from the charcoal reduction of calamine in 1746. This bluish-white metal is brittle at ambient temperatures but becomes malleable between 110 °C – 150 °C. It is an essential element in
the growth of plants and animals, and altered biological concentrations of zinc can lead to severe health problems. Zinc’s principle use is to galvanize iron and steel, preventing corrosion. It is also used to form numerous metal alloys such as brass, bronze, and aluminum solder. Zinc oxide is used in plastics, cosmetics, and wallpaper, while zinc sulfide is employed in luminescent dials, TV screens, and fluorescent lights.